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Outside of the traditional classroom, through the Fulbright Program and the International Visitor Leadership Program IVLP , young professionals and rising scholars from the United States and Taiwan collaborate on research and exchange best practices on a broad range of topics.

Foreign Representation The United States maintains unofficial relations with the people of Taiwan through the American Institute in Taiwan AIT , a private, nonprofit corporation, which performs citizen and consular services similar to those at diplomatic posts.

Other principal officials are listed on AIT's site. More information about Taiwan is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:.

Trade Representative Countries Page U. Jump to In This Section. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets U. Relations With Taiwan Share. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs.

Ma Ying-jeou took office in for two terms, before handing it over to Hau Lung-pin who won the mayoral election on 9 December The incumbent mayor, Ko Wen-je , was elected on 29 November and took office on 25 December Based on the outcomes of previous elections in the past decade, the vote of the overall constituency of Taipei City shows a slight inclination towards the pro-KMT camp the Pan-Blue Coalition ; [85] however, the pro-DPP camp the Pan-Green Coalition also has considerable support.

Ketagalan Boulevard , where the Presidential Office Building and other government structures are situated, is often the site of mass gatherings such as inauguration and national holiday parades, receptions for visiting dignitaries, political demonstrations, [87] [88] and public festivals.

Taipei City is also famous for its effort in garbage recycling, which has become such a good international precedent that other countries have sent teams to study the recycling system.

After the Environmental Protection Administration EPA established a program in combining the efforts of communities, a financial resource named the Recycling Fund was made available to recycling companies and waste collectors.

The EPA also introduced garbage recycling trucks, in effort to raise community recycling awareness, that broadcast classical music to announce its arrival to the community.

Between and , the recycling rate increased from 6 percent to 32 percent. The city is characterized by straight roads and public buildings of grand Western architectural styles.

The area in between these blocks are infilled with lanes and alleys, which provide access to quieter residential or mixed-use development.

These minor roads are not always perpendicular and sometimes cut through the block diagonally. Although development began in the western districts still considered the cultural heart of the city of the city due to trade, the eastern districts of the city have become the focus of recent development projects.

Many of the western districts, already in decline, have become targets of new urban renewal initiatives. Public transport accounts for a substantial portion of different modes of transport in Taiwan, with Taipei residents having the highest utilization rate at Motor-scooters often weave between cars and occasionally through oncoming traffic.

Respect for traffic laws, once scant, has improved with deployment of traffic cameras and increasing numbers of police roadblocks checking riders for alcohol consumption and other offenses.

Taipei Station serves as the comprehensive hub for the subway, bus, conventional rail, and high-speed rail. It contains credits that are deducted each time a ride is taken.

Taipei's public transport system, the Taipei Metro commonly referred to as the MRT , incorporates a metro and light rail system based on advanced VAL and Bombardier technology.

There are currently five metro lines that are labelled in three ways: In addition to the rapid transit system itself, the Taipei Metro also includes several public facilities such as the Maokong Gondola , underground shopping malls, parks, and public squares.

Modifications to existing railway lines to integrate them into the metro system are underway. The new line is part of the new Taoyuan Metro system.

Beginning in , surface rail lines in the city were moved underground as part of the Taipei Railway Underground Project.

An extensive city bus system serves metropolitan areas not covered by the metro, with exclusive bus lanes to facilitate transportation. A unique feature of the Taipei bus system is the joint venture of private transportation companies that operate the system's routes while sharing the fare system.

This route is in sharp contrast to bus systems in the U. Most scheduled international flights are served by Taoyuan International Airport in nearby Taoyuan City.

Taipei Songshan Airport , at the heart of the city in the Songshan District , serves domestic flights and scheduled flights to Haneda Airport in Tokyo , Gimpo International Airport in Seoul , and about 15 destinations in the People's Republic of China.

In , with the rapid development of Taipei, a white paper for transport policies expressed the strong objective to "create a civilised transport system for the people of Taipei.

Thales was then selected again in to deploy an upgrade of Taipei's public transport network with an end-to-end and fully contactless automatic fare collection solution that integrates metro stations, 5, buses and 92 car parks.

Taipei is home to the campuses of 24 universities and Academia Sinica , Taiwan's national academy which supports the Taiwan International Graduate Program:.

NTU has produced many political and social leaders in Taiwan. Both pan-blue and pan-green movements in Taiwan are rooted on the NTU campus.

The university has six campuses in the greater Taipei region including New Taipei and two additional campuses in Nantou County.

The university governs farms, forests, and hospitals for educational and research purposes. The main campus is in Taipei's Da-An district, where most department buildings and all the administrative buildings are located.

The National Taiwan University Hospital is a leading international center of medical research. Founded as Taihoku College in and organized as a teacher training institution by the Kuomintang in , NTNU has since developed into a comprehensive international university.

The university boasts especially strong programs in the humanities and international education. Worldwide it is perhaps best known as home of the Mandarin Training Center , a program that offers Mandarin language training each year to over a thousand students from scores of countries throughout the world.

The Shida market area surrounding this campus takes its name from the school's portmanteau. Due to Taiwan being under American and Japanese influence over the years, the sports of baseball in particular and basketball have become popular in the city.

Taipei, like the rest of the country, has featured most prominently in baseball and has often been the venue for the Asian Baseball Championship since the s.

The best doubles tennis player in the world Chan Yung-Jan is from Taipei too. The Taipei Arena is located at the site of the former Taipei Municipal Baseball Stadium demolished in , with a capacity of over 15, Designed by Archasia, the arena was opened on 1 December Since its opening in , the arena has held more art and cultural activities such as live concerts than sporting events, which it was originally designed and built for.

The main arena has an adjustable floor space: The Tianmu Baseball Stadium is the major baseball venue in Taipei. Taipei has the only football - specific stadium in Taiwan, Zhongshan Soccer Stadium , which hosts the national football team.

Since there are no professional football leagues in Taiwan, no other sporting events are held there, since , the Taipei Stadium hosts the Soccer and Athletic events.

Its Little League World Series international team has won 17 championships, the most wins in the league. As the capital, Taipei City is the headquarters for many television and radio stations in Taiwan and the center of some of the country's largest newspapers.

Taipei is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities Taipei is twinned with: National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall. Zhishan Garden at the National Palace Museum.

Taipei Story House Yuanshan Mansion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For historical capitals of the Republic of China, see Nanjing and Chongqing.

For the capital of the People's Republic of China, see Beijing. This article is about the capital city. For other uses, see Taipei disambiguation.

Special municipality in Republic of China Taiwan. Chinese language romanization in Taiwan. List of tourist attractions in Taipei.

Mayor of Taipei City and Republic of China municipal elections, Taipei Joint Bus System. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

List of sister cities of Taipei. Places adjacent to Taipei. Retrieved 13 June Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

Archived from the original on 9 December Taiwan Ministry of Interior. Archived from the original on Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics.

History — Britannica Online Encyclopedia". The Island of Formosa, Past and Present: London and New York: Taipei has never been declared the official capital but Kuomintang loyalists today generally regard it as such.

In elementary textbook references stating "Nanjing is the capital of the Republic of China" were replaced with "Taipei is the location of the central government of the Republic of China.

Archived from the original on 7 May Archived from the original on 26 May University of Washington Press.

Kwang Hwa Publishing Co. Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press , healthcare , [20] public education, economic freedom, and human development.

Today, 17 countries maintain official ties with the ROC but many other states maintain unofficial ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates.

Although Taiwan is fully self-governing, most international organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor.

Internally, the major division in politics is between the aspirations of eventual Chinese unification or Taiwanese independence , though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.

The PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible.

Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period.

In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia modern-day Anping , Tainan on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", [30] after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe, possibly Taivoan people , written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang , Tayowan , Teijoan , etc.

The area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as "Taiwan".

The name also appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or even Luzon.

The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence.

For instance, it is the name under which it has competed at the Olympic Games since , and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization.

Taiwan was joined to the mainland in the Late Pleistocene , until sea levels rose about 10, years ago.

Fragmentary human remains dated 20, to 30, years ago have been found on the island, as well as later artifacts of a Paleolithic culture.

Around 6, years ago, Taiwan was settled by farmers, most likely from mainland China. This has led linguists to propose Taiwan as the urheimat of the family, from which seafaring peoples dispersed across Southeast Asia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Han Chinese fishermen began settling in the Penghu islands in the 13th century. In , the company established a stronghold called Fort Zeelandia on the coastal islet of Tayouan, which is now part of the main island at Anping, Tainan.

Some of these fell under Dutch control, while others remained independent. In , the Spanish Empire landed on and occupied northern Taiwan, at the ports of Keelung and Tamsui , as a base to extend their trading.

This colonial period lasted 16 years until , when the last Spanish fortress fell to Dutch forces. Following the fall of the Ming dynasty , Koxinga Zheng Chenggong , a self-styled Ming loyalist, arrived on the island and captured Fort Zeelandia in , expelling the Dutch Empire and military from the island.

Koxinga established the Kingdom of Tungning — , with his capital at Tainan. He and his heirs, Zheng Jing , who ruled from to , and Zheng Keshuang , who ruled less than a year, continued to launch raids on the southeast coast of mainland China well into the Qing dynasty era.

In , following the defeat of Koxinga's grandson by an armada led by Admiral Shi Lang of southern Fujian , the Qing dynasty formally annexed Taiwan, placing it under the jurisdiction of Fujian province.

The Qing imperial government tried to reduce piracy and vagrancy in the area, issuing a series of edicts to manage immigration and respect aboriginal land rights.

Immigrants mostly from southern Fujian continued to enter Taiwan. The border between taxpaying lands and "savage" lands shifted eastward, with some aborigines becoming sinicized while others retreated into the mountains.

During this time, there were a number of conflicts between groups of Han Chinese from different regions of southern Fujian, particularly between those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou , and between southern Fujian Chinese and aborigines.

The French occupied Keelung on 1 October , but were repulsed from Tamsui a few days later. The French won some tactical victories but were unable to exploit them, and the Keelung Campaign ended in stalemate.

The Pescadores Campaign , beginning on 31 March , was a French victory, but had no long-term consequences. The French evacuated both Keelung and the Penghu archipelago after the end of the war.

In , the Qing upgraded the island's administration from Taiwan Prefecture of Fujian Province to Fujian-Taiwan-Province , the twentieth in the empire, with its capital at Taipei.

This was accompanied by a modernization drive that included building China's first railroad. Inhabitants on Taiwan and Penghu wishing to remain Qing subjects were given a two-year grace period to sell their property and move to mainland China.

Very few Taiwanese saw this as feasible. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and quelled this resistance on 21 October Japanese colonial rule was instrumental in the industrialization of the island, extending the railroads and other transportation networks, building an extensive sanitation system, and establishing a formal education system.

By , Taiwan was the seventh greatest sugar producer in the world. After suppressing Chinese guerrillas in the first decade of their rule, Japanese authorities engaged in a series of bloody campaigns against the mountain aboriginals, culminating in the Musha Incident of Around , the Japanese began an island-wide assimilation project to bind the island more firmly to the Japanese Empire and people were taught to see themselves as Japanese under the Kominka Movement, during which time Taiwanese culture and religion were outlawed and the citizens were encouraged to adopt Japanese surnames.

Taiwan held strategic wartime importance as Imperial Japanese military campaigns first expanded and then contracted over the course of World War II.

During World War II, tens of thousands of Taiwanese served in the Japanese military [65] Over 2, women, euphemistically called " comfort women ", were forced into sexual slavery for Imperial Japanese troops.

The Imperial Japanese Navy operated heavily out of Taiwanese ports. Important Japanese military bases and industrial centres throughout Taiwan, such as Kaohsiung and Keelung, were targets of heavy raids by American bombers.

While Taiwan was still under Japanese rule, the Republic of China was founded on the mainland on 1 January , following the Xinhai Revolution , which began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October , replacing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China.

Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism —28 , Japanese invasion —45 , and the Chinese Civil War —50 , with central authority strongest during the Nanjing decade —37 , when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang KMT under an authoritarian one-party state.

Chen Yi proclaimed that day to be " Taiwan Retrocession Day ", but the Allies considered Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to be under military occupation and still under Japanese sovereignty until , when the Treaty of San Francisco took effect.

This introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan. The ROC administration of Taiwan under Chen Yi was strained by increasing tensions between Taiwanese-born people and newly arrived mainlanders, which were compounded by economic woes, such as hyperinflation.

Furthermore, cultural and linguistic conflicts between the two groups quickly led to the loss of popular support for the new government, while the mass movement led by the working committee of the Communist Party also aimed to bring down the Kuomintang government.

Mainstream estimates of the number killed range from 18, to 30, Those killed were mainly members of the Taiwanese elite. Throughout the months of , a series of Chinese Communist offensives led to the capture of its capital Nanjing on 23 April and the subsequent defeat of the Nationalist army on the mainland, and the Communists founded the People's Republic of China on 1 October.

On 7 December , after the loss of four capitals, Chiang evacuated his Nationalist government to Taiwan and made Taipei the temporary capital of the ROC also called the "wartime capital" by Chiang Kai-shek.

In addition, the ROC government took to Taipei many national treasures and much of China's gold reserves and foreign currency reserves.

After losing most of the mainland, the Kuomintang held remaining control of Tibet , the portions of Qinghai , Xinjiang , and Yunnan provinces along with the Hainan Island until before the Communists subsequently captured these territories.

The Kuomintang continued to claim sovereignty over all "China", which it defined to include mainland China , Taiwan, Outer Mongolia and other areas. On mainland China, the victorious Communists claimed they ruled the sole and only China which they claimed included Taiwan and that the Republic of China no longer existed.

Martial law, declared on Taiwan in May , [83] continued to be in effect after the central government relocated to Taiwan.

It was not repealed until , [83] and was used as a way to suppress the political opposition in the intervening years.

Since these people were mainly from the intellectual and social elite, an entire generation of political and social leaders was decimated.

In law was passed to create the "Compensation Foundation for Improper Verdicts" which oversaw compensation to White Terror victims and families.

President Ma Ying-jeou made an official apology in , expressing hope that there will never be a tragedy similar to White Terror.

However, in the conflict between North Korea and South Korea , which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in , escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S.

Neither treaty specified to whom sovereignty over the islands should be transferred, because the United States and the United Kingdom disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China.

As the Chinese Civil War continued without truce, the government built up military fortifications throughout Taiwan. The two sides would continue to engage in sporadic military clashes with seldom publicized details well into the s on the China coastal islands with an unknown number of night raids.

During the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis in September , Taiwan's landscape saw Nike-Hercules missile batteries added, with the formation of the 1st Missile Battalion Chinese Army that would not be deactivated until Newer generations of missile batteries have since replaced the Nike Hercules systems throughout the island.

During the s and s, the ROC maintained an authoritarian, single-party government while its economy became industrialized and technology oriented.

This rapid economic growth, known as the Taiwan Miracle , was the result of a fiscal regime independent from mainland China and backed up, among others, by the support of US funds and demand for Taiwanese products.

Up until the s, the government was regarded by Western critics as undemocratic for upholding martial law , for severely repressing any political opposition and for controlling media.

Thus, competitive democratic elections did not exist. In , a pro-democracy protest known as the Kaohsiung Incident took place in Kaohsiung to celebrate Human Rights Day.

Although the protest was rapidly crushed by the authorities, it is today considered as the main event that united Taiwan's opposition.

Chiang Ching-kuo , Chiang Kai-shek's son and successor as the president, began to liberalize the political system in the mids.

In , the younger Chiang selected Lee Teng-hui , a Taiwanese-born, US-educated technocrat, to be his vice-president. A year later, Chiang Ching-kuo lifted martial law on the main island of Taiwan martial law was lifted on Penghu in , Matsu island in and Kinmen island in With the advent of democratization, the issue of the political status of Taiwan gradually resurfaced as a controversial issue where, previously, the discussion of anything other than unification under the ROC was taboo.

After the death of Chiang Ching-kuo in January , Lee Teng-hui succeeded him and became the first Taiwan-born president.

Lee continued to democratize the government and decrease the concentration of government authority in the hands of mainland Chinese.

Under Lee, Taiwan underwent a process of localization in which Taiwanese culture and history were promoted over a pan-China viewpoint in contrast to earlier KMT policies which had promoted a Chinese identity.

Lee's reforms included printing banknotes from the Central Bank rather than the Provincial Bank of Taiwan, and streamlining the Taiwan Provincial Government with most of its functions transferred to the Executive Yuan.

Under Lee, the original members of the Legislative Yuan and National Assembly a former supreme legislative body defunct in , [98] elected in to represent mainland Chinese constituencies and having held the seats without re-election for more than four decades, were forced to resign in The previously nominal representation in the Legislative Yuan was brought to an end, reflecting the reality that the ROC had no jurisdiction over mainland China, and vice versa.

Restrictions on the use of Taiwanese Hokkien in the broadcast media and in schools were also lifted. Democratic reforms continued in the s, with Lee Teng-hui re-elected in , in the first direct presidential election in the history of the ROC.

In ,"To meet the requisites of the nation prior to national unification", [] the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China was passed and then the former "constitution of five powers" turns to be more tripartite.

Polarized politics has emerged in Taiwan with the formation of the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties led by the KMT, favouring eventual Chinese reunification , and the Pan-Green Coalition of parties led by the DPP, favouring an eventual and official declaration of Taiwanese independence.

No budget will be ear-marked for it and its personnel must return to their original posts The National Unification Guidelines will cease to apply.

On 30 September , the ruling DPP approved a resolution asserting a separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country".

It also called for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China.

The KMT increased its majority in the Legislative Yuan in the January legislative elections , while its nominee Ma Ying-jeou went on to win the presidency in March of the same year, campaigning on a platform of increased economic growth and better ties with the PRC under a policy of " mutual nondenial ".

Part of the rationale for campaigning for closer economic ties with the PRC stems from the strong economic growth China attained since joining the World Trade Organization.

However, some analysts say that despite the election of Ma Ying-jeou, the diplomatic and military tensions with the PRC have not been reduced.

On 24 May , the Constitutional Court ruled that current marriage laws have been violating the Constitution by denying Taiwanese same-sex couples the right to marry.

The Court ruled that if the Legislative Yuan does not pass adequate amendments to Taiwanese marriage laws within two years, same-sex marriages will automatically become legitimate in Taiwan.

Its shape is similar to a sweet potato , giving rise to the slang term sweet potato used by Taiwanese Hokkien speakers to refer to people of native Taiwanese descent.

The island is characterized by the contrast between the eastern two-thirds, consisting mostly of rugged mountains running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island, and the flat to gently rolling Chianan Plains in the west that are also home to most of Taiwan's population.

More distant islands of the Republic of China are the Kinmen , Wuchiu and Matsu Islands off the coast of Fujian , with a total area of Taiwan lies on the Tropic of Cancer , and its general climate is marine tropical.

Typhoons are most common in July, August and September. The island of Taiwan lies in a complex tectonic area between the Yangtze Plate to the west and north, the Okinawa Plate on the north-east, and the Philippine Mobile Belt on the east and south.

The upper part of the crust on the island is primarily made up of a series of terranes , mostly old island arcs which have been forced together by the collision of the forerunners of the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate.

These have been further uplifted as a result of the detachment of a portion of the Eurasian Plate as it was subducted beneath remnants of the Philippine Sea Plate, a process which left the crust under Taiwan more buoyant.

The east and south of Taiwan are a complex system of belts formed by, and part of the zone of, active collision between the North Luzon Trough portion of the Luzon Volcanic Arc and South China, where accreted portions of the Luzon Arc and Luzon forearc form the eastern Coastal Range and parallel inland Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan respectively.

The major seismic faults in Taiwan correspond to the various suture zones between the various terranes. These have produced major quakes throughout the history of the island.

On 21 September , a 7. The political and legal statuses of Taiwan are contentious issues. It has not formally renounced its claim to the mainland, but ROC government publications have increasingly downplayed it.

Internationally, there is controversy on whether the ROC still exists as a state or a defunct state per international law due to the lack of wide diplomatic recognition.

The political environment is complicated by the potential for military conflict should Taiwan declare de jure independence; it is the official PRC policy to use force to ensure unification if peaceful unification is no longer possible, as stated in its anti-secession law , and for this reason there are substantial military installations on the Fujian coast.

It uses this policy to prevent the international recognition of the ROC as an independent sovereign state, meaning that Taiwan participates in international forums under the name " Chinese Taipei ".

With the emergence of the Taiwanese independence movement, the name "Taiwan" has been employed increasingly often on the island.

Before , the foreign policy of Republican China was complicated by a lack of internal unity—competing centres of power all claimed legitimacy.

This situation changed after the defeat of the Peiyang Government by the Kuomintang, which led to widespread diplomatic recognition of the Republic of China.

Due to diplomatic pressure, recognition gradually eroded and many countries switched recognition to the PRC in the s. The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that recognizes the ROC, and requires all nations with which it has diplomatic relations to make a statement recognizing its claims to Taiwan.

The United States remains one of the main allies of the country and, through the Taiwan Relations Act passed in , has continued selling arms and providing military training to the Armed Forces.

As a consequence, the PRC threatened the US with economic sanctions and warned that their co-operation on international and regional issues could suffer.

The official position of the United States is that the PRC is expected to "use no force or threat[en] to use force against Taiwan" and the ROC is to "exercise prudence in managing all aspects of Cross-Strait relations.

Each year since , the ROC has petitioned the UN for entry, but its applications have not made it past committee. Due to its limited international recognition, the Republic of China is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization , represented by a government-funded organization, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy TFD under the name "Taiwan".

Most member states , including the United States, do not wish to discuss the issue of the ROC's political status for fear of souring diplomatic ties with the PRC.

Within Taiwan, opinions are polarized between those supporting unification, represented by the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties, and those supporting independence, represented by the Pan-Green Coalition.

The KMT, the largest Pan-Blue party, supports the status quo for the indefinite future with a stated ultimate goal of unification.

However, it does not support unification in the short term with the PRC as such a prospect would be unacceptable to most of its members and the public.

The Democratic Progressive Party , the largest Pan-Green party, officially seeks independence, but in practice also supports the status quo because its members and the public would not accept the risk of provoking the PRC.

The president replied that the relations are neither between two Chinas nor two states. It is a special relationship. Further, he stated that the sovereignty issues between the two cannot be resolved at present, but he quoted the " Consensus ", currently accepted by both the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, as a temporary measure until a solution becomes available.

On 27 September , Taiwanese premier William Lai said that he was a "political worker who advocates Taiwan independence", but that as Taiwan was an independent country called the Republic of China, it had no need to declare independence.

The government of the Republic of China was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People , which states that the ROC "shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people.

The constitution was drafted before the fall of mainland China to the Communist Party of China. It was created by the KMT for the purpose of all of its claimed territory, including Taiwan, even though the Communist Party boycotted the drafting of the constitution.

The constitution went into effect on 25 December Political reforms beginning in the late s and continuing through the early s liberalized the country and transformed into a multiparty democracy.

Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China has democratized and reformed, suspending constitutional components that were originally meant for the whole of China.

This process of amendment continues. In May , a new National Assembly was elected to reduce the number of parliamentary seats and implement several constitutional reforms.

These reforms have been passed; the National Assembly has essentially voted to abolish itself and transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot.

The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the president , who is elected by popular vote for a maximum of 2 four-year terms on the same ticket as the vice-president.

The president has authority over the Yuan. The president appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet , including a premier , who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.

The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with seats. Seventy-three are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies.

Members serve four-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly , as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college , held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums.

The premier is selected by the president without the need for approval from the legislature, but the legislature can pass laws without regard for the president, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power.

After the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian as President in , legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority.

This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the president rather than the premier, even though the constitution does not explicitly state the extent of the president's executive power.

The Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries.

The president and vice-president of the Judicial Yuan and additional thirteen justices form the Council of Grand Justices. The highest court, the Supreme Court , consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding judge and four associate judges, all appointed for life.

In , a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process.

There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.

Capital punishment is still used in Taiwan, although efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions.

The Control Yuan is a watchdog agency that monitors controls the actions of the executive. It can be considered a standing commission for administrative inquiry and can be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union or the Government Accountability Office of the United States.

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. It is based on the old imperial examination system used in dynastic China.

The tension between China and Taiwan colours most of the political life, and any government move towards "Taiwan independence" is met by threat of military attack from the PRC.

The political scene is generally divided into two major camps in terms of views on how Taiwan should relate to China or the PRC, referred to as cross-Strait relations.

It is the main political difference between two camps: It regards Taiwan as an independent, sovereign state synonymous with the ROC , opposes the definition that Taiwan is part of "China", and seeks wide diplomatic recognition and an eventual declaration of formal Taiwan independence.

Thus, in September , the then ruling Democratic Progressive Party approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a " normal country ".

It called also for general use of " Taiwan " as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the "Republic of China". Pan-Blue members generally support the concept of the One-China policy, which states that there is only one China and that its only government is the ROC.

They favour eventual re-unification of China. Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo , while refusing immediate reunification.

The dominant political issue in Taiwan is its relationship with the PRC. This was a problem for many Taiwanese businesses that had opened factories or branches in mainland China.

The former DPP administration feared that such links would lead to tighter economic and political integration with mainland China, and in the Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian called for managed opening of links.

Direct weekend charter flights between Taiwan and mainland China began in July under the current KMT government, and the first direct daily charter flights took off in December Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States authorized in The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues.

Corruption among some DPP administration officials has been exposed. In early , President Chen Shui-bian was linked to possible corruption.

The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a divide in the DPP leadership and supporters alike.

It eventually led to the creation of a political camp led by ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-teh which believes the president should resign.

The KMT assets continue to be another major issue, as it was once the richest political party in the world. Another significant fraction descends from Han Chinese who immigrated from mainland China in the late s and early s.

The shared cultural origin combined with several hundred years of geographical separation, some hundred years of political separation and foreign influences, as well as hostility between the rival ROC and PRC have resulted in national identity being a contentious issue with political overtones.

Since democratization and the lifting of martial law, a distinct Taiwanese identity as opposed to Taiwanese identity as a subset of a Chinese identity is often at the heart of political debates.

Its acceptance makes the island distinct from mainland China, and therefore may be seen as a step towards forming a consensus for de jure Taiwan independence.

In the latest survey conducted by National Chengchi University in and published in early , It was later reformed into the Republic of China Army.

Units which surrendered and remained in mainland China were either disbanded or incorporated into the People's Liberation Army. Today, Taiwan maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as defence against the constant threat of invasion by the People's Liberation Army under the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China.

This law gives green light to the use of military force when certain Chinese Red Lines formulated in the Anti-Secession Law are crossed like endangering citizens of the People's Republic of China.

As this mission has shifted to defence because the strength of People's Republic of China has massively increased, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant Army to the air force and navy.

Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government. However, many have retired and there are many more non-mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan.

The ROC began a force reduction program, Jingshi An translated to streamlining program , to scale down its military from a level of , in to , in It also decided to modernize both defensive and offensive capabilities.

Taipei still keeps a large military apparatus relative to the island's population: Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the US military responds.

However, Japan has refused to stipulate whether the "area surrounding Japan" mentioned in the pact includes Taiwan, and the precise purpose of the pact is unclear.

According to the constitution, the territory of the ROC is according to its "existing national boundaries". When the ROC retreated to Taiwan in , its claimed territory consisted of 35 provinces, 12 special municipalities, 1 special administrative region and 2 autonomous regions.

They were placed under Kaohsiung administration after the retreat to Taiwan. Since , the government has made some changes in the area under its control.

Taipei became a special municipality in and Kaohsiung in The two provincial governments were "streamlined", with their functions transferred to the central government Fujian in and Taiwan in And in , Taoyuan County was also upgraded to Taoyuan special municipality.

This brought the top-level divisions to their current state: According to Article 4 of the Local Government Act, laws pertaining to special municipalities also apply to counties with a population exceeding 2 million.

The quick industrialization and rapid growth of Taiwan during the latter half of the 20th century has been called the " Taiwan Miracle ".

Japanese rule prior to and during World War II brought changes in the public and private sectors, most notably in the area of public works, which enabled rapid communications and facilitated transport throughout much of the island.

The Japanese also improved public education and made it compulsory for all residents of Taiwan. By , hyperinflation was in progress in mainland China and Taiwan as a result of the war with Japan.

To isolate Taiwan from it, the Nationalist government created a new currency area for the island, and began a price stabilization program.

These efforts significantly slowed inflation. The government also implemented a policy of import-substitution , attempting to produce imported goods domestically.

In , with the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States began an aid program which resulted in fully stabilized prices by

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The president appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet , including a premier , who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.

The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with seats. Seventy-three are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies.

Members serve four-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly , as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college , held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums.

The premier is selected by the president without the need for approval from the legislature, but the legislature can pass laws without regard for the president, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power.

After the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian as President in , legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority.

This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the president rather than the premier, even though the constitution does not explicitly state the extent of the president's executive power.

The Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries.

The president and vice-president of the Judicial Yuan and additional thirteen justices form the Council of Grand Justices. The highest court, the Supreme Court , consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding judge and four associate judges, all appointed for life.

In , a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process.

There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.

Capital punishment is still used in Taiwan, although efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions.

The Control Yuan is a watchdog agency that monitors controls the actions of the executive. It can be considered a standing commission for administrative inquiry and can be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union or the Government Accountability Office of the United States.

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. It is based on the old imperial examination system used in dynastic China.

The tension between China and Taiwan colours most of the political life, and any government move towards "Taiwan independence" is met by threat of military attack from the PRC.

The political scene is generally divided into two major camps in terms of views on how Taiwan should relate to China or the PRC, referred to as cross-Strait relations.

It is the main political difference between two camps: It regards Taiwan as an independent, sovereign state synonymous with the ROC , opposes the definition that Taiwan is part of "China", and seeks wide diplomatic recognition and an eventual declaration of formal Taiwan independence.

Thus, in September , the then ruling Democratic Progressive Party approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a " normal country ".

It called also for general use of " Taiwan " as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the "Republic of China". Pan-Blue members generally support the concept of the One-China policy, which states that there is only one China and that its only government is the ROC.

They favour eventual re-unification of China. Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo , while refusing immediate reunification.

The dominant political issue in Taiwan is its relationship with the PRC. This was a problem for many Taiwanese businesses that had opened factories or branches in mainland China.

The former DPP administration feared that such links would lead to tighter economic and political integration with mainland China, and in the Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian called for managed opening of links.

Direct weekend charter flights between Taiwan and mainland China began in July under the current KMT government, and the first direct daily charter flights took off in December Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States authorized in The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues.

Corruption among some DPP administration officials has been exposed. In early , President Chen Shui-bian was linked to possible corruption.

The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a divide in the DPP leadership and supporters alike.

It eventually led to the creation of a political camp led by ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-teh which believes the president should resign. The KMT assets continue to be another major issue, as it was once the richest political party in the world.

Another significant fraction descends from Han Chinese who immigrated from mainland China in the late s and early s. The shared cultural origin combined with several hundred years of geographical separation, some hundred years of political separation and foreign influences, as well as hostility between the rival ROC and PRC have resulted in national identity being a contentious issue with political overtones.

Since democratization and the lifting of martial law, a distinct Taiwanese identity as opposed to Taiwanese identity as a subset of a Chinese identity is often at the heart of political debates.

Its acceptance makes the island distinct from mainland China, and therefore may be seen as a step towards forming a consensus for de jure Taiwan independence.

In the latest survey conducted by National Chengchi University in and published in early , It was later reformed into the Republic of China Army.

Units which surrendered and remained in mainland China were either disbanded or incorporated into the People's Liberation Army.

Today, Taiwan maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as defence against the constant threat of invasion by the People's Liberation Army under the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China.

This law gives green light to the use of military force when certain Chinese Red Lines formulated in the Anti-Secession Law are crossed like endangering citizens of the People's Republic of China.

As this mission has shifted to defence because the strength of People's Republic of China has massively increased, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant Army to the air force and navy.

Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government. However, many have retired and there are many more non-mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan.

The ROC began a force reduction program, Jingshi An translated to streamlining program , to scale down its military from a level of , in to , in It also decided to modernize both defensive and offensive capabilities.

Taipei still keeps a large military apparatus relative to the island's population: Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the US military responds.

However, Japan has refused to stipulate whether the "area surrounding Japan" mentioned in the pact includes Taiwan, and the precise purpose of the pact is unclear.

According to the constitution, the territory of the ROC is according to its "existing national boundaries". When the ROC retreated to Taiwan in , its claimed territory consisted of 35 provinces, 12 special municipalities, 1 special administrative region and 2 autonomous regions.

They were placed under Kaohsiung administration after the retreat to Taiwan. Since , the government has made some changes in the area under its control.

Taipei became a special municipality in and Kaohsiung in The two provincial governments were "streamlined", with their functions transferred to the central government Fujian in and Taiwan in And in , Taoyuan County was also upgraded to Taoyuan special municipality.

This brought the top-level divisions to their current state: According to Article 4 of the Local Government Act, laws pertaining to special municipalities also apply to counties with a population exceeding 2 million.

The quick industrialization and rapid growth of Taiwan during the latter half of the 20th century has been called the " Taiwan Miracle ".

Japanese rule prior to and during World War II brought changes in the public and private sectors, most notably in the area of public works, which enabled rapid communications and facilitated transport throughout much of the island.

The Japanese also improved public education and made it compulsory for all residents of Taiwan. By , hyperinflation was in progress in mainland China and Taiwan as a result of the war with Japan.

To isolate Taiwan from it, the Nationalist government created a new currency area for the island, and began a price stabilization program. These efforts significantly slowed inflation.

The government also implemented a policy of import-substitution , attempting to produce imported goods domestically. In , with the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States began an aid program which resulted in fully stabilized prices by Under the combined stimulus of the land reform and the agricultural development programs, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 4 per cent from to , which was greater than the population growth, 3.

Taiwan's HDI in is 0. In , Chiang Ching-kuo implemented the Ten Major Construction Projects , the beginning foundations that helped Taiwan transform into its current export driven economy.

Since the s, a number of Taiwan-based technology firms have expanded their reach around the world. Well-known international technology companies headquartered in Taiwan include personal computer manufacturers Acer Inc.

Computex Taipei is a major computer expo, held since Today Taiwan has a dynamic, capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade.

In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization.

The trade surplus is substantial, and foreign reserves are the world's fifth largest. Since the beginning of the s, the economic ties between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China have been very prolific.

A white paper by the Department of Industrial Technology states that "Taiwan should seek to maintain stable relation with China while continuing to protect national security, and avoiding excessive 'Sinicization' of Taiwanese economy.

High-technology industrial parks have sprung up in every region in Taiwan. Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths, Taiwan suffered little compared with many of its neighbours from the Asian financial crisis.

Unlike its neighbours, South Korea and Japan, the Taiwanese economy is dominated by small and medium-sized businesses, rather than the large business groups.

The global economic downturn, however, combined with poor policy co-ordination by the new administration and increasing bad debts in the banking system, pushed Taiwan into recession in , the first whole year of negative growth since Due to the relocation of many manufacturing and labour-intensive industries to the PRC, unemployment also reached a level not seen since the s oil crisis.

This became a major issue in the presidential election. The ROC often joins international organizations especially ones that also include the People's Republic of China under a politically neutral name.

The Ministry of Transportation and Communications of the Republic of China is the cabinet-level governing body of the transportation network in Taiwan.

Taiwan has an extensive highway network, classified into five levels: Taiwan also has an extensive bus network, most of which are run by private bus companies.

Rapid transit systems include the Taipei Metro , Taoyuan Metro incl. There are four international seaports: Keelung , Kaohsiung , Taichung , and Hualien.

The higher education system was established in Taiwan by Japan during the colonial period. However, after the Republic of China took over Taiwan from Japan in , the system was promptly replaced by the same system as in mainland China which mixed with features of the Chinese and American educational systems.

Taiwan is well known for adhering to the Confucian paradigm of valuing education as a means to improve one's socioeconomic position in Taiwanese society.

Taiwan is one of the top-performing countries in reading literacy, maths and sciences. In , Taiwanese students achieved one of the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA , a worldwide evaluation of year-old school pupils' scholastic performance.

Taiwan has a high percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree where 45 percent of Taiwanese aged 25—64 hold a bachelor's degree or higher compared with the average of 33 percent among member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD.

In addition, the system has been criticized for producing an excess supply of over-educated university graduates and a higher unemployment rate.

With a large supply of university graduates seeking a limited demand of prestigious white collar jobs in an environment that is increasingly losing its competitive edge has led many degree holders ending up with lower end jobs with salaries far beneath than their expectations.

As the Taiwanese economy is largely science and technology based, the labor market demands people who have achieved some form of higher education, particularly related to science and engineering in order to gain a competitive edge when searching for employment.

Many Taiwanese students attend cram schools, or bushiban , to improve skills and knowledge on problem solving against exams of subjects like mathematics, nature science, history and many others.

Courses are available for most popular subjects. Lessons are organized in lectures, reviews, private tutorial sessions, and recitations.

As of [update] , the literacy rate in Taiwan is Taiwan has a population of about The remainder live on Penghu , , Kinmen , , and Matsu 12, Additional people of Han origin include and descend from the 2 million Nationalists who fled to Taiwan following the communist victory on the mainland in The indigenous Taiwanese aborigines number about , and are divided into 16 recognized groups.

Mandarin is the official national language and is spoken by the vast majority of the population of Taiwan. It has been the primary language of instruction in schools since the end of Japanese rule.

Most waishengren speak primarily Mandarin. Although Mandarin is the language of instruction in schools and dominates television and radio, non-Mandarin Chinese varieties have undergone a revival in public life in Taiwan, particularly since restrictions on their use were lifted in the s.

Taiwan's indigenous languages, the Formosan languages , do not belong to the Chinese or Sino-Tibetan language family, but rather to the Austronesian language family.

Their use among Taiwan's aboriginal minority groups has been in decline as usage of Mandarin has risen.

Religion in Taiwan census []. The Constitution of the Republic of China protects people's freedom of religion and the practices of belief.

According to the census, of the 26 religions recognized by the ROC government, the five largest are: Buddhism 8,, or Church buildings are the most obvious markers of Aboriginal villages, distinguishing them from Taiwanese or Hakka villages.

Confucianism is a philosophy that deals with secular moral ethics, and serves as the foundation of both Chinese and Taiwanese culture. The majority of Taiwanese people usually combine the secular moral teachings of Confucianism with whatever religions they are affiliated with.

As of [update] , there were 14, temples in Taiwan, approximately one place of worship per 1, residents. In , Taiwan had 3, Churches, an increase of The figures below are the estimates for the twenty most populous administrative divisions; a different ranking exists when considering the total metropolitan area populations in such rankings the Taipei-Keelung metro area is by far the largest agglomeration.

The current program was implemented in , and is considered to be a form of social insurance. A standardized method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions.

BNHI insurance coverage requires co-payment at the time of service for most services unless it is a preventative health service, for low-income families, veterans, children under three years old, or in the case of catastrophic diseases.

During the outbreak the Centers for Disease Control and local governments set up monitored stations throughout public transportation, recreational sites and other public areas.

In , the infant mortality rate was 5. The life expectancy for males was UN World Population Prospects [].

The cultures of Taiwan are a hybrid blend of various sources, incorporating elements of traditional Chinese culture, attributable to the historical and ancestral origin of the majority of its current residents, Japanese culture, traditional Confucianist beliefs, and increasingly Western values.

After their move to Taiwan, the Kuomintang imposed an official interpretation of traditional Chinese culture over Taiwan.

The government launched a program promoting Chinese calligraphy , traditional Chinese painting , folk art , and Chinese opera. The status of Taiwanese culture is debated.

Reflecting the continuing controversy surrounding the political status of Taiwan , politics continues to play a role in the conception and development of a Taiwanese cultural identity, especially in the prior dominant frame of a Taiwanese and Chinese dualism.

In recent years, the concept of Taiwanese multiculturalism has been proposed as a relatively apolitical alternative view, which has allowed for the inclusion of mainlanders and other minority groups into the continuing re-definition of Taiwanese culture as collectively held systems of meaning and customary patterns of thought and behaviour shared by the people of Taiwan.

One of Taiwan's greatest attractions is the National Palace Museum , which houses more than , pieces of Chinese bronze, jade, calligraphy, painting, and porcelain and is considered one of the greatest collections of Chinese art and objects in the world.

The PRC had said that the collection was stolen and has called for its return, but the ROC has long defended its control of the collection as a necessary act to protect the pieces from destruction, especially during the Cultural Revolution.

Relations regarding this treasure have warmed recently; Beijing Palace Museum Curator Zheng Xinmiao said that artefacts in both Chinese and Taiwanese museums are "China's cultural heritage jointly owned by people across the Taiwan Strait.

Karaoke , drawn from contemporary Japanese culture, is extremely popular in Taiwan, where it is known as KTV. KTV businesses operate in a hotel-like style, renting out small rooms and ballrooms varying on the number of guests in a group.

Many KTV establishments partner with restaurants and buffets to form all-encompassing elaborate evening affairs for families, friends, or businessmen.

Tour buses that travel around Taiwan have several TV's, equipped not for watching movies, but primarily for singing Karaoke.

There, movies out on DVD can be selected and played in a private theatre room. However, MTV, more so than KTV, has a growing reputation for being a place that young couples will go to be alone and intimate.

Taiwan has a high density of hour convenience stores, which, in addition to the usual services, provide services on behalf of financial institutions or government agencies such as collection of parking fees, utility bills, traffic violation fines, and credit card payments.

Taiwanese culture has also influenced other cultures. Taiwanese television shows are popular in Singapore, Malaysia, and other Asian countries.

Taiwanese films have won various international awards at film festivals around the world. Ang Lee , a Taiwanese director, has directed critically acclaimed films such as: Baseball is Taiwan's national sport and it is a popular spectator sport.

As of [update] , the CPBL has four teams with average attendance over 5, per game. Besides baseball, basketball is Taiwan's other major sport.

In the Olympics, Chen Shih-hsin and Chu Mu-yen won the first two gold medals in women's flyweight event and men's flyweight event, respectively.

Subsequent taekwondo competitors such as Yang Shu-chun have strengthened Taiwan's taekwondo culture. Taiwan participates in international sporting organizations and events under the name of " Chinese Taipei " due to its political status.

In , Taiwan hosted two international sporting events on the island. The World Games were held in Kaohsiung between 16 and 26 July Taipei hosted the 21st Summer Deaflympics in September of the same year.

Furthermore, Taipei hosted the Summer Universiade in Taiwan is also a major Asian country for Korfball. She is the youngest player ever, male or female, to win five major championships and was ranked number 1 in the Women's World Golf Rankings for consecutive weeks from to Taiwan uses two official calendars: The latter numbers years starting from , the year of the founding of the Republic of China.

Usually, year numbering may use the Gregorian system as well as the ROC era system. For example, 3 May , may be written or The use of two different calendar systems in Taiwan may be confusing, in particular for foreigners.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Taiwan disambiguation. For the People's Republic of China, see China. For other uses, see Republic of China disambiguation.

Territory controlled by the Republic of China: Formosan languages [3] Hakka [4]. Matsu dialect Taiwanese Hokkien. Traditional Chinese Formosan Latin alphabet [5].

Chinese Taipei , Formosa , and Names of China. History of Taiwan and History of the Republic of China. See the History of China article for historical information in the Chinese Mainland before Taiwan under Qing rule.

Taiwan under Japanese rule and Republic of Formosa. Republic of China — Democratic reforms of Taiwan and Elections in Taiwan. Political status of Taiwan.

People's Republic of China. Foreign relations of Taiwan. Taiwan independence and Chinese Unification. Elections in Taiwan and Human rights in Taiwan.

Emblem of the Kuomintang , the main Pan-Blue Coalition party. Taiwanese identity and Chinese nationalism. Republic of China Armed Forces. Republic of China Military Academy.

Administrative divisions of Taiwan. History of the administrative divisions of the Republic of China — Economy of Taiwan and Economic history of Taiwan.

North-south divide in Taiwan. Taiwanese people , Han Taiwanese , and Taiwanese aborigines. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

List of cities in Taiwan. Largest administrative divisions in Taiwan source. Culture of Taiwan and Cultural history of Taiwan.

Chinese calendar and Public holidays in Taiwan. Geography portal Asia portal Taiwan portal Islands portal. Yuan , p. Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 29 December Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 17 September United States Central Intelligence Agency.

Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 2 February National Statistics, Republic of China Taiwan. Retrieved 22 September Archived from the original PDF on 26 December Retrieved 26 November Retrieved 7 May Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics.

Retrieved 18 March Government and Politics in Taiwan. Moreover, its status as a vibrant democratic state has earned it huge international sympathy and a generally positive image.

Reconciling Tradition and Modernity in International Law. The population on the islands of Formosa and the Pescadores is governed by an effective government to the exclusion of others, but Taiwan is not generally considered a state.

Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 2 July Taiwanese hold degrees from higher education institutions". Retrieved 10 April The Republic of China Yearbook Archived from the original PDF on 14 May The true derivation of the name "Taiwan" is actually from the ethnonym of a tribe in the southwest part of the island in the area around Ping'an.

As early as , a Dutch missionary referred to this group as Taiouwang. From the name of the tribe, the Portuguese called the area around Ping'an as Tayowan, Taiyowan, Tyovon, Teijoan, Toyouan, and so forth.

Indeed, already in his ship's log of , the Dutchman Cornelis Reijersen referred to the area as Teijoan and Taiyowan. Essays on Urbanism in a Colonial Context.

Harvard University Asia Center, p. Retrieved 15 July Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original PDF on 18 April Archived from the original PDF on 16 September Statecraft and Political Economy on the Taiwan Frontier, — Taiwan under the Dutch and the Cheng Regime".

In Rubinstein, Murray A. How Taiwan Became Chinese. Formosa Under the Dutch: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. Memories of the future: Archived from the original on 1 September Retrieved 3 December In Postiglione, Gerard A.

Going to school in East Asia. Archived from the original on 19 April Culture, Self and Adaptation: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica. Archived from the original on 27 October University of California Press.

Retrieved on 25 August Oversea Office Republic of China Taiwan. Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 14 June Chronology of important events".

Archived from the original on 16 April Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 1 September The sovereignty was Japanese until The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in , as a military occupation.

American Journal of International Law. After occupying Taiwan in as a result of Japan's surrender, the Nationalists were defeated on the mainland in , abandoning it to retreat to Taiwan.

Retrieved 18 December How the Far East was lost: American policy and the creation of Communist China. A Sparrow Transformed into a Phoenix] in Chinese.

Government Information Office, Republic of China. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 21 June In Chiang Kai-shek had transferred to Taiwan the government, gold reserve, and some of the army of his Republic of China.

Archived from the original on 10 February Since the KMT ruling clique retreated to Taiwan, its regime has continued to use the designations 'Republic of China' and 'government of the Republic of China,' despite having long since completely forfeited its right to exercise state sovereignty on behalf of China.

Decree to establish martial law in Taiwan] in Chinese. Retrieved 23 May New Taiwan, Ilha Formosa.

Papers of Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum: In addition 7th Fleet will take station so as to prevent invasion of Formosa and to insure that Formosa not be used as base of operations against Chinese mainland.

By naval and air action prevent any attack on Formosa, or any air or sea offensive from Formosa against mainland of China.

And during the later stages of the civil war it was able to end the hyperinflation on Taiwan, something it was unable to do on the mainland despite two attempts.

Death of the Casualty". Retrieved 16 December Prescriptions for saving China: The party first applied Sun's concept of political tutelage by governing through martial law, not tolerating opposition parties, controlling the public media, and using the constitution drawn up on the China mainland to govern.

Thus, much of the world in those years gave the government low scores for democracy and human rights but admitted it had accomplished an economic miracle.

Democracy's new leaders in the Republic of China on Taiwan. Although this party [the KMT] had initiated a democratic breakthrough and guided the democratic transition, it had also upheld martial law for thirty-six years and severely repressed political dissent and any efforts to establish an opposition party.

University Press of America. Also, the "Temporary Provisions" of the Constitution did not permit forming new political parties, and those that existed at this time did not seriously compete with the Nationalist Party.

Thus, at the national level the KMT did not permit competitive democratic elections. Retrieved 30 October From the Perspective of the Abolishment of the National Assembly".

Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 4 April Taiwan looks to China". Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 13 February It has its own constitution, democratically elected leaders, and , troops in its armed forces.

Archived from the original PDF on 21 May Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 7 June Archived from the original PDF on 11 March Retrieved 5 March The PRC refusal to renounce using military power against Taiwan, its current emphasis on 'enhancing preparation for military struggle', its obvious intention of preparing a war against Taiwan reflected in operational deployment, readiness efforts, and annual military exercises in the Southeast China coastal region, and its progress in aerospace operations, information warfare, paralyzing warfare, and non-conventional warfare, all of these factors work together so that the ROC Armed Forces face an increasingly complicated and difficult situation in terms of self-defense and counterattack.

These multiple daunting challenges are testing our defense security. Retrieved 14 April South China Morning Post. Retrieved 3 June The Japan Times Online.

Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 10 November The dominant political issues continue to be economic reform and growth as well as management of sensitive relations between Taiwan and China.

South China Sea 0 m. Kueishantao Island m , east of Taiwan, is its only historically active volcano, although it has not erupted in centuries.

Environment - current issues: Environment - international agreements: Taiwan singular and plural. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development.

The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.

Major urban areas - population: New Taipei City 4. Life expectancy at birth: Taiwan uses a variety of romanization systems; while a modified Wade-Giles system still dominates, the city of Taipei has adopted a Pinyin romanization for street and place names within its boundaries; other local authorities use different romanization systems.

International law organization participation: Executive Yuan - ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier.

Supreme Court consists of the court president, vice president, and approximately judges organized into 8 civil and 12 criminal divisions, each with a division chief justice and 4 associate justices ; Constitutional Court consists of the court president, vice president, and 13 justices.

Supreme Court justices appointed by the president; Constitutional Court justices appointed by the president with approval of the Legislative Yuan; Supreme Court justices appointed for life; Constitutional Court justices appointed for 8-year terms with half the membership renewed every 4 years.

Political parties and leaders: Diplomatic representation in the US: Stanley KAO since 5 June Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices branch offices: Diplomatic representation from the US: MOY since June Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy that is driven largely by industrial manufacturing, and especially exports of electronics, machinery, and petrochemicals.

This heavy dependence on exports exposes the economy to fluctuations in global demand. Taiwan's diplomatic isolation, low birth rate, rapidly aging population, and increasing competition from China and other Asia Pacific markets are other major long-term challenges.

However, follow-on components of the ECFA, including a signed agreement on trade in services and negotiations on trade in goods and dispute resolution, have stalled.

In early , the government bowed to public demand and proposed a new law governing the oversight of cross-Strait agreements, before any additional deals with China are implemented; the legislature has yet to vote on such legislation, leaving the future of ECFA uncertain.

President TSAI since taking office in May has promoted greater economic integration with South and Southeast Asia through the New Southbound Policy initiative and has also expressed interest in Taiwan joining the Trans-Pacific Partnership as well as bilateral trade deals with partners such as the US.

Taiwan's total fertility rate of just over one child per woman is among the lowest in the world, raising the prospect of future labor shortages, falling domestic demand, and declining tax revenues.

The island runs a trade surplus with many economies, including China and the US, and its foreign reserves are the world's fifth largest, behind those of China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Switzerland.

China is also the island's number one destination for foreign direct investment. Taiwan since has gradually loosened rules governing Chinese investment and has also secured greater market access for its investors on the mainland.

GDP purchasing power parity: GDP official exchange rate: GDP - real growth rate: GDP - composition, by end use: GDP - composition, by sector of origin: Industrial production growth rate: Labor force - by occupation: Population below poverty line: Household income or consumption by percentage share: Distribution of family income - Gini index: Taxes and other revenues: Inflation rate consumer prices: Central bank discount rate: Commercial bank prime lending rate: Stock of narrow money: Stock of broad money: Stock of domestic credit: Market value of publicly traded shares: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: Electricity - installed generating capacity: Electricity - from fossil fuels: Electricity - from nuclear fuels: Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: Electricity - from other renewable sources: Crude oil - production: Crude oil - exports: Crude oil - imports: Crude oil - proved reserves:

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