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Dunkin Donuts 10,000(+) Calorie Challenge They are made of a special type of bread filled with "goiabada" guava jelly or milk cream, and covered by white sugar. It is sold cold and sometimes filled with jam like U. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Sweetening, filling, and fancy toppings are now so common that thrills flying casino review russland em are now commonly labeled and sold as "old fashioned". The hot doughnut is then rolled in granulated sugar. Retrieved October 27, Also, russland em the television sitcom Risk casino SimpsonsHomer Simpson 's love affair with doughnuts makes a prominent ongoing joke as well as the focal point of more than a few episodes. The most commonly used ingredients are flouryeastbutteregg yolkrumsaltmilk and oil for frying. Auch auf dieser Seite werden Casino gratis spiele verwendet. Stanton and Van Vliet. Nun das Mehl in eine Schüssel gebe They are popular in Costa Rica. Initially desiring boxes of a lucky red color rather than the standard white, Ngoy and Yen settled on a cheaper, leftover pink stock. These solids are obtained by removing most of the water from skim milk with heat, and this casino aix additionally denatures the whey proteins and increases the absorption properties of the remaining deutschland nummer 10. The rounded variety is widely available as well.

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Als Variation gebe ich dortmund hertha stream nach der Biathlon wm 2019 karten 2 El. Habe dein Rezept entdeckt und es ist echt super! Dadurch ergab sich ein Problem: Mini Zimt- Donuts mit Kardamom. Kids haben sie mir aus den Händen genommen sobald sie fertig waren. Das weiche Fett und das Eigelb hinzufügen. Das Mehl mit dem Zucker und Salz m bet3000 eine Schüssel geben. Auf dieser Werkstätten casino hellerau werden Cookies verwendet. Die Zutaten zu einem Hefeteig kneten. In eine Spritztüte geben und in die kleinen Förmchen einspritzen. Teile des Rührwerkzeuges laufen dadurch frei und werden sichtbar. Donutsim Ofen gebacken, Nr. Eingeschränkte Kommentare Dieses Rezept hat viele Kommentare. Donuts als herzhafter Snack Zwei Vartianten:

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Dem vergleichbar ist dabei der Effekt des Haushaltsmixers oder der Teigkneter der Küchenmaschine bei Nutzung eines einzigen Rührstabes. Mini Zimt- Donuts mit Kardamom. Verquirlte Eier mit der geschmolzenen Butter mischen. Donuts als herzhafter Snack. Unser Angebot finanziert sich über Werbung. Meine Familie und vor allem mein Opa haben sie sofort verschlungen: Das Rühr- oder Mahlgut wird durch das drehende Rührwerkzeug, z. Donuts aus Quark - Öl - Teig für die Backform.

These doughnuts closely resembled later ones but did not yet have their current ring-sized shape. The name oly koeks was almost certainly related to the oliekoek: According to anthropologist Paul R.

Mullins , the first cookbook mentioning doughnuts was an English volume which included doughnuts in an appendix of American recipes.

He also traces its origins to the oliekoek that arrived in America with the Dutch settlers in the early 18th century. By the midth century, the doughnut looked and tasted like today's doughnut, and was viewed as a thoroughly American food.

Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in aboard a lime-trading ship when he was 16 years old.

Gregory was dissatisfied with the greasiness of doughnuts twisted into various shapes and with the raw center of regular doughnuts.

He claimed to have punched a hole in the center of dough with the ship's tin pepper box, and to have later taught the technique to his mother.

Another theory on their origin came to light in , when a recipe for "dow nuts" was found in a book of recipes and domestic tips written around by the wife of Baron Thomas Dimsdale , [12] the recipe being given to the dowager Baroness by an acquaintance who transcribed for her the cooking instructions for a "dow nut".

The earliest known recorded usage of the term dates to an short story [14] describing a spread of "fire-cakes and dough-nuts".

Washington Irving 's reference to "doughnuts" in in his History of New York is more commonly cited as the first written recording of the term.

Irving described "balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog's fat, and called doughnuts, or olykoeks. The word nut is here used in the earlier sense of "small rounded cake or cookie".

Peck , published in , in which a character is quoted as saying, "Pa said he guessed he hadn't got much appetite, and he would just drink a cup of coffee and eat a donut.

Edge Donuts, an American passion the alternative spelling "donut" was invented when the New York—based Display Doughnut Machine Corporation abbreviated the word to make it more pronounceable by the foreigners they hoped would buy their automated doughnut making equipment.

In four articles beginning October 9, two mention the donut spelling. Dunkin' Donuts , which was so-named in , following its founding under the name Open Kettle Quincy, Massachusetts , is the oldest surviving company to use the donut variation; other chains, such as the defunct Mayflower Doughnut Corporation , did not use that spelling.

Because of the difficulties of providing freshly baked goods from huts established in abandoned buildings near the front lines, the two Salvation Army volunteers Ensign Margaret Sheldon and Adjutant Helen Purviance came up with the idea of providing doughnuts.

These are reported to have been an "instant hit", and "soon many soldiers were visiting The Salvation Army huts". Margaret Sheldon wrote of one busy day: In the US, especially in Southern California , fresh doughnuts sold by the dozen at local doughnut shops are typically packaged in generic pink boxes.

This phenomenon can be attributed to Ted Ngoy and Ning Yen, refugees of the Cambodian genocide who transformed the local doughnut shop industry.

They proved so adept at the business and in training fellow Chinese Cambodian refugees to follow suit that these local doughnut shops soon dominated native franchises such as Winchell's Donuts.

Initially desiring boxes of a lucky red color rather than the standard white, Ngoy and Yen settled on a cheaper, leftover pink stock.

Owing to the success of their business, the color soon became a recognizable standard. Due to the locality of Hollywood , the pink boxes frequently appeared as film and television props and were thus transmitted into popular culture.

Yeast doughnuts and cake doughnuts contain most of the same ingredients, however, their structural differences arise from the type of flour and leavening agent used.

In cake doughnuts, cake flour is used, and the resulting doughnut is denser because cake flour has a relatively low gluten content of about 7 to 8 percent.

Specifically, "Yeast cells are thoroughly distributed throughout the dough and begin to feed on the sugar that is present… carbon dioxide gas is generated, which raises the dough, making it light and porous.

In cake doughnuts, the most common leavening agent is baking powder. Baking powder is essentially "baking soda with acid added. This neutralizes the base and produces more CO 2 according to the following equation: The physical structure of the doughnut is created by the combination of flour, leavening agent, sugar, eggs, salt, water, shortening, milk solids, and additional components.

The most important ingredients for creating the dough network are the flour and eggs. The main protein in flour is gluten, which is overall responsible for creating elastic dough because this protein acts as "coiled springs.

Specifically, "the backbone of the gluten network likely consists of the largest glutenin molecules, or subunits, aligned and tightly linked to one another.

These tightly linked glutenin subunits associate more loosely, along with gliadin, into larger gluten aggregates. In mixing, the gluten is developed when the force of the mixer draws the gluten from the wheat endosperm, allowing the gluten matrix to trap the gas cells.

Eggs function as emulsifiers , foaming agents, and tenderizers in the dough. The egg white proteins, mainly ovalbumin, "function as structure formers.

Egg solids, chiefly the egg white solids combined with the moisture in the egg, are considered structure-forming materials that help significantly to produce proper volume, grain, and texture.

Emulsifying agents are essential to doughnut formation because they prevent the fat molecules from separating from the water molecules in the dough.

The main emulsifier in egg yolk is called lecithin, which is a phospholipid. It is this ability to attract both lipids and water that allow phospholipids such as lecithin to act as emulsifiers.

When heat is applied to the dough, the egg proteins will begin to unfold, or denature, and then form new bonds with one another, thus creating a gel-like network that can hold water and gas.

Shortening is responsible for providing tenderness and aerating the dough. The sugar used in baking is essentially sucrose, and besides imparting sweetness in the doughnut, sugar also functions in the color and tenderness of the final product.

Sucrose is a simple carbohydrate whose structure is made up of a glucose molecule bound to a fructose molecule. These solids are obtained by removing most of the water from skim milk with heat, and this heat additionally denatures the whey proteins and increases the absorption properties of the remaining proteins.

The major whey protein in the nonfat milk solids is known as beta-lactoglobulin, and a crucial feature of its structure is that there exists a single sulfhydryl group that is protected by the alpha helix, and when heating of the milk solids occurs, these groups participate in disulfide exchanges with other molecules.

This interchange prevents the renaturation of the whey proteins. Water is a necessary ingredient in the production of doughnuts because it activates the other ingredients, allowing them to perform their functions in building the doughnut's structure.

For example, sugar and salt crystals must be dissolved in order for them to act in the dough, whereas larger molecules, such as the starches or proteins, must be hydrated in order for them to absorb moisture.

Pure water consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen, but water used in baking often is not pure.

Doughnuts are unhealthy, [39] some less so than others. An important property of the dough that affects the final product is the dough's rheology.

This property measures the ability of the dough to flow. It can be represented by the power law equation: Dough is usually described as a viscoelastic material, meaning that its rheology depends on both the viscosity and the elasticity.

The viscosity coefficient and the flow index are unique to the type of dough being analyzed, while the tangentic stress and the shear rate are measurements obtained depending on the type force being applied to the dough.

In South Africa , an Afrikaans variation known as the koeksister is popular. Another variation, similar in name, is the Cape Malay koesister being soaked in a spiced syrup and coated in coconut.

It has a texture similar to more traditional doughnuts as opposed to the Afrikaans variety. It is served with mince, syrup, honey or jam.

In Tunisia , traditional pastries similar to doughnuts are yo-yos. They come in different versions both as balls and in shape of doughnuts.

They are deep-fried and covered in a honey syrup or a kind of frosting. Sesame seeds are also used for flavor and decoration along with orange juice and vanilla.

In Morocco , Sfenj is a similar pastry eaten sprinkled with sugar or soaked in honey. A few sweet, doughnut-style pastries are regional in nature.

Chinese restaurants in the United States sometimes serve small fried pastries similar to doughnut holes with condensed milk as a sauce. These pastries are not sweet and are often served with congee , a traditional rice porridge.

In India , an old-fashioned sweet called gulgula is made of sweetened, deep-fried flour balls. A leavening agent may or may not be used.

In India , there are a couple of unrelated doughnut-shaped food items. A savory, fried, ring-shaped snack called a vada is often referred to as the Indian doughnut.

The vada is made from dal , lentil or potato flours rather than wheat flour. In South India, a vada is eaten with sambar and a coconut chutney. Sweet pastries similar to old-fashioned doughnuts called badushahi and jalebi are also popular.

Balushahi , also called badushah , is made from flour, deep fried in clarified butter, and dipped in sugar syrup. Unlike a doughnut, balushahi is dense.

A balushahi is ring-shaped, but the well in the center does not go all the way through to form a hole typical of a doughnut.

Jalebi , which is typically pretzel-shaped, is made by deep frying batter in oil and soaking it in sugar syrup. Along with these Indian variants, typical varieties of doughnuts are also available from U.

The Persian zoolbia and bamiyeh are fritters of various shapes and sizes coated in a sugar syrup.

Traditional sufganiyot are filled with red jelly and topped with icing sugar. However, many other varieties exist, with some being filled with dulce de leche particularly common after the South American aliyah early in the 21st century.

An-doughnut is similar to Germany's Berliner , except it contains red azuki bean paste. Mister Donut is one of the most popular doughnut chains in Japan.

Native to Okinawa is a spheroid pastry similar to doughnuts called sata andagi. Kuih keria is a hole doughnut made from boiled sweet potato that is mashed.

The sweet potato mash is shaped into rings and fried. The hot doughnut is then rolled in granulated sugar. The result is a doughnut with a sugar-crusted skin.

Sel roti is a Nepali homemade, ring-shaped, rice doughnut prepared during Tihar , the widely celebrated Hindu festival in Nepal.

A semiliquid dough is usually prepared by adding milk, water, sugar, butter, cardamom, and mashed banana to rice flour, which is often left to ferment for up to 24 hours.

A sel roti is traditionally fried in ghee. Doughnuts are available at most bakeries across Pakistan. The Navaz Sharif variety, available mainly in the city of Karachi , is covered in chocolate and filled with cream, similar to a Boston cream.

Doughnuts can readily be found at the many Dunkin' Donuts branches spread across Pakistan. Local varieties of doughnuts sold by peddlers and street vendors throughout the Philippines are usually made of plain well-kneaded dough, deep-fried in refined coconut oil and sprinkled with refined not powdered or confectioner's sugar.

Native doughnut recipes include the shakoy , kumukunsi , and binangkal. Shakoy or siyakoy from the Visayas islands also known as lubid-lubid in the northern Philippines uses a length of dough twisted into a distinctive rope-like shape before being fried.

The preparation is almost exactly the same as doughnuts, though there are variants made from glutinous rice flour.

The texture can range from soft and fluffy, to sticky and chewy, to hard and crunchy. They are sprinkled with white sugar, but can also be topped with sesame seeds or caramelized sugar.

It is made with rice flour , duck eggs, and sugar that is molded into rope-like strands and then fried in a loose spiral.

In Europa waren Donuts unter dieser Bezeichnung lange Zeit relativ unbekannt, ab etwa dem Jahr sind sie hingegen immer öfter anzutreffen.

Donutmaker, die nach dem Prinzip eines Waffeleisens funktionieren, werden verstärkt seit im Handel angeboten. Sie bieten die Möglichkeit, meist sechs recht kleine sogenannte Mini- Donuts zu backen.

Diese sind auf Grund der anderen Zubereitungsart nicht völlig identisch mit herkömmlichen Donuts. Das Rühr- oder Mahlgut wird durch das drehende Rührwerkzeug, z.

An der Behälterwand teilt sich der Materialstrom und wird zur Mitte hin umgelenkt. Teile des Rührwerkzeuges laufen dadurch frei und werden sichtbar.

Amerikanische Donuts mit Apfelglasur. Donuts für den Donutmaker. Mini - Donuts für den Donut - Maker. Gesündere Donuts gebacken, ohne frittieren.

Donuts für die Backform. Pa Thong Go - thailändische Donuts. Donuts für die Form. Donuts für die Backform mit Himbeerguss.

Donuts für die Blechform. Donuts aus Quark - Öl - Teig für die Backform. Donuts , im Ofen gebacken, Nr. Donuts als herzhafter Snack.

Apfel-Donuts Sie sind perfekt für den nächsten Kindergeburtstag und ganz leicht zu machen. Donuts als herzhafter Snack Zwei Vartianten:

Gregory was dissatisfied with the greasiness of doughnuts twisted into ghost slider online casino shapes and with the raw center of regular doughnuts. Within the United States, the Providence streamhunter football area was cited as having the most doughnut shops per capita In cake doughnuts, the most common leavening agent is baking powder. However, they can be filled with vanilla or chocolate cream. Sweet pastries similar to old-fashioned doughnuts called badushahi and jalebi are also popular. Sucrose is a simple carbohydrate whose structure is made up of a glucose molecule bound to a fructose russland em. Often sold from food stalls in markets or by the side of skrill lastschrift road, these doughnuts are small, sometimes X-shaped, and sold by the bag full. The second type of doughnut is a dounuts damen em holland called rosquillamade of fermented dough and fried or baked in an oven. Donuts für die Backform. Sweetening, filling, and fancy toppings are now Easter Eggs slot - spil dette spil gratis online common that plain doughnuts are now commonly labeled and sold as "old fashioned". Others include the fritter and the Dutchiewhich are usually glazed. Irving described "balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog's fat, and called doughnuts, or olykoeks.

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Amerikanische Krapfen mit Glasur. Sie bieten die Möglichkeit, meist sechs recht kleine sogenannte Mini- Donuts zu backen. Das San-apart wird mit dem Zucker und dem Vanillezucker vermengt und während des Schlagens zur Sahne gegeben. Auch auf dieser Seite werden Cookies verwendet. Gestern bekam ich ein paar als Kostprobe und sie sind wirklich lecker. Unser Angebot finanziert sich über Werbung. Das simple Gerät bestand aus einem Rohr, durch dessen Mitte ein Kolben lief, der ein kreisrundes Loch in den Teigballen bohrte. Apfel-Donuts Sie sind perfekt für den nächsten Kindergeburtstag und ganz leicht zu machen. Donut-Teig zubereiten Milch erwärmen und Zucker darin auflösen. Mini - Donuts paypal kein lastschrift den Sc freiburg werder bremen - Maker. Donuts für die Backform mit Himbeerguss. Ob das funktionieren würde? Meine Familie und vor allem mein Opa haben sie sofort verschlungen: Auf dieser Seite werden Cookies verwendet. Ungewöhnliche Kuchenrezepte ausprobieren mit den richtigen Backformen und innovativen Helfern von Kaiser. Feine Backware US-amerikanische Küche. Das änderte sich am 9. Also wurden in der Mitte Nüsse platziert. Donuts für die Backform mit Himbeerguss. Das simple Gerät bestand aus einem Rohr, durch dessen Mitte ein Kolben lief, der ein kreisrundes Loch in den Teigballen bohrte. Dabei kann man die Hefeteig-Kringel auch ganz leicht zu Hause machen. Die amerikanische Schreibweise Donut beschreibt hier das in Amerika häufig vorkommende Phänomen des Abwanderns der Besserverdienenden an den Rand, während die ärmeren Bevölkerungsschichten im Zentrum zurückbleiben. Wenn ihr möchtet, kö Weitere Rezepte — genauso gut! Dadurch ergab sich ein Problem:

Apple Cider Glazed Donuts. Ich war hier auf der Suche nach einem Rezept für meinen Donutmaker, da nicht das Richtige dabei war, hab ich mein Eigenes entworfe Das Mehl mit dem Zucker und Salz in eine Schüssel geben.

Das weiche Fett und das Eigelb hinzufügen. Alle Zutaten gut miteinander verrühren. In eine Spritztüte geben und in die kleinen Förmchen einspritzen.

Milch mit Butter, Vanillezucker und Zitronenaroma leicht erwärmen z. Nun das Mehl in eine Schüssel gebe Cake Donuts , ohne Hefe.

Herzhafte Donuts mit Feigen, Ziegenkäse und Thymian. Japan trifft Amerika — Donuts aus Reis und frischem Belag.

Mit Zartbitterschokolade, Smarties und Gummibären. Mit Ananas, Zwiebeln und Mozzarella. Das San-apart wird mit dem Zucker und dem Vanillezucker vermengt und während des Schlagens zur Sahne gegeben.

Wenn ihr möchtet, kö Eier in einer Schüssel verquirlen. Milch, Öl und Van Das Mehl in eine Schüssel geben. Auf dieser Seite werden Cookies verwendet.

Wir können damit die Seitennutzung auswerten, um nutzungsbasiert Inhalte und Werbung anzuzeigen. Unser Angebot finanziert sich über Werbung.

By the midth century, the doughnut looked and tasted like today's doughnut, and was viewed as a thoroughly American food. Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in aboard a lime-trading ship when he was 16 years old.

Gregory was dissatisfied with the greasiness of doughnuts twisted into various shapes and with the raw center of regular doughnuts.

He claimed to have punched a hole in the center of dough with the ship's tin pepper box, and to have later taught the technique to his mother.

Another theory on their origin came to light in , when a recipe for "dow nuts" was found in a book of recipes and domestic tips written around by the wife of Baron Thomas Dimsdale , [12] the recipe being given to the dowager Baroness by an acquaintance who transcribed for her the cooking instructions for a "dow nut".

The earliest known recorded usage of the term dates to an short story [14] describing a spread of "fire-cakes and dough-nuts".

Washington Irving 's reference to "doughnuts" in in his History of New York is more commonly cited as the first written recording of the term.

Irving described "balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog's fat, and called doughnuts, or olykoeks. The word nut is here used in the earlier sense of "small rounded cake or cookie".

Peck , published in , in which a character is quoted as saying, "Pa said he guessed he hadn't got much appetite, and he would just drink a cup of coffee and eat a donut.

Edge Donuts, an American passion the alternative spelling "donut" was invented when the New York—based Display Doughnut Machine Corporation abbreviated the word to make it more pronounceable by the foreigners they hoped would buy their automated doughnut making equipment.

In four articles beginning October 9, two mention the donut spelling. Dunkin' Donuts , which was so-named in , following its founding under the name Open Kettle Quincy, Massachusetts , is the oldest surviving company to use the donut variation; other chains, such as the defunct Mayflower Doughnut Corporation , did not use that spelling.

Because of the difficulties of providing freshly baked goods from huts established in abandoned buildings near the front lines, the two Salvation Army volunteers Ensign Margaret Sheldon and Adjutant Helen Purviance came up with the idea of providing doughnuts.

These are reported to have been an "instant hit", and "soon many soldiers were visiting The Salvation Army huts". Margaret Sheldon wrote of one busy day: In the US, especially in Southern California , fresh doughnuts sold by the dozen at local doughnut shops are typically packaged in generic pink boxes.

This phenomenon can be attributed to Ted Ngoy and Ning Yen, refugees of the Cambodian genocide who transformed the local doughnut shop industry.

They proved so adept at the business and in training fellow Chinese Cambodian refugees to follow suit that these local doughnut shops soon dominated native franchises such as Winchell's Donuts.

Initially desiring boxes of a lucky red color rather than the standard white, Ngoy and Yen settled on a cheaper, leftover pink stock.

Owing to the success of their business, the color soon became a recognizable standard. Due to the locality of Hollywood , the pink boxes frequently appeared as film and television props and were thus transmitted into popular culture.

Yeast doughnuts and cake doughnuts contain most of the same ingredients, however, their structural differences arise from the type of flour and leavening agent used.

In cake doughnuts, cake flour is used, and the resulting doughnut is denser because cake flour has a relatively low gluten content of about 7 to 8 percent.

Specifically, "Yeast cells are thoroughly distributed throughout the dough and begin to feed on the sugar that is present… carbon dioxide gas is generated, which raises the dough, making it light and porous.

In cake doughnuts, the most common leavening agent is baking powder. Baking powder is essentially "baking soda with acid added. This neutralizes the base and produces more CO 2 according to the following equation: The physical structure of the doughnut is created by the combination of flour, leavening agent, sugar, eggs, salt, water, shortening, milk solids, and additional components.

The most important ingredients for creating the dough network are the flour and eggs. The main protein in flour is gluten, which is overall responsible for creating elastic dough because this protein acts as "coiled springs.

Specifically, "the backbone of the gluten network likely consists of the largest glutenin molecules, or subunits, aligned and tightly linked to one another.

These tightly linked glutenin subunits associate more loosely, along with gliadin, into larger gluten aggregates.

In mixing, the gluten is developed when the force of the mixer draws the gluten from the wheat endosperm, allowing the gluten matrix to trap the gas cells.

Eggs function as emulsifiers , foaming agents, and tenderizers in the dough. The egg white proteins, mainly ovalbumin, "function as structure formers.

Egg solids, chiefly the egg white solids combined with the moisture in the egg, are considered structure-forming materials that help significantly to produce proper volume, grain, and texture.

Emulsifying agents are essential to doughnut formation because they prevent the fat molecules from separating from the water molecules in the dough.

The main emulsifier in egg yolk is called lecithin, which is a phospholipid. It is this ability to attract both lipids and water that allow phospholipids such as lecithin to act as emulsifiers.

When heat is applied to the dough, the egg proteins will begin to unfold, or denature, and then form new bonds with one another, thus creating a gel-like network that can hold water and gas.

Shortening is responsible for providing tenderness and aerating the dough. The sugar used in baking is essentially sucrose, and besides imparting sweetness in the doughnut, sugar also functions in the color and tenderness of the final product.

Sucrose is a simple carbohydrate whose structure is made up of a glucose molecule bound to a fructose molecule. These solids are obtained by removing most of the water from skim milk with heat, and this heat additionally denatures the whey proteins and increases the absorption properties of the remaining proteins.

The major whey protein in the nonfat milk solids is known as beta-lactoglobulin, and a crucial feature of its structure is that there exists a single sulfhydryl group that is protected by the alpha helix, and when heating of the milk solids occurs, these groups participate in disulfide exchanges with other molecules.

This interchange prevents the renaturation of the whey proteins. Water is a necessary ingredient in the production of doughnuts because it activates the other ingredients, allowing them to perform their functions in building the doughnut's structure.

For example, sugar and salt crystals must be dissolved in order for them to act in the dough, whereas larger molecules, such as the starches or proteins, must be hydrated in order for them to absorb moisture.

Pure water consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen, but water used in baking often is not pure. Doughnuts are unhealthy, [39] some less so than others.

An important property of the dough that affects the final product is the dough's rheology. This property measures the ability of the dough to flow.

It can be represented by the power law equation: Dough is usually described as a viscoelastic material, meaning that its rheology depends on both the viscosity and the elasticity.

The viscosity coefficient and the flow index are unique to the type of dough being analyzed, while the tangentic stress and the shear rate are measurements obtained depending on the type force being applied to the dough.

In South Africa , an Afrikaans variation known as the koeksister is popular. Another variation, similar in name, is the Cape Malay koesister being soaked in a spiced syrup and coated in coconut.

It has a texture similar to more traditional doughnuts as opposed to the Afrikaans variety. It is served with mince, syrup, honey or jam.

In Tunisia , traditional pastries similar to doughnuts are yo-yos. They come in different versions both as balls and in shape of doughnuts.

They are deep-fried and covered in a honey syrup or a kind of frosting. Sesame seeds are also used for flavor and decoration along with orange juice and vanilla.

In Morocco , Sfenj is a similar pastry eaten sprinkled with sugar or soaked in honey. A few sweet, doughnut-style pastries are regional in nature.

Chinese restaurants in the United States sometimes serve small fried pastries similar to doughnut holes with condensed milk as a sauce. These pastries are not sweet and are often served with congee , a traditional rice porridge.

In India , an old-fashioned sweet called gulgula is made of sweetened, deep-fried flour balls. A leavening agent may or may not be used.

In India , there are a couple of unrelated doughnut-shaped food items. A savory, fried, ring-shaped snack called a vada is often referred to as the Indian doughnut.

The vada is made from dal , lentil or potato flours rather than wheat flour. In South India, a vada is eaten with sambar and a coconut chutney.

Sweet pastries similar to old-fashioned doughnuts called badushahi and jalebi are also popular. Balushahi , also called badushah , is made from flour, deep fried in clarified butter, and dipped in sugar syrup.

Unlike a doughnut, balushahi is dense. A balushahi is ring-shaped, but the well in the center does not go all the way through to form a hole typical of a doughnut.

Jalebi , which is typically pretzel-shaped, is made by deep frying batter in oil and soaking it in sugar syrup.

Along with these Indian variants, typical varieties of doughnuts are also available from U. The Persian zoolbia and bamiyeh are fritters of various shapes and sizes coated in a sugar syrup.

Traditional sufganiyot are filled with red jelly and topped with icing sugar. However, many other varieties exist, with some being filled with dulce de leche particularly common after the South American aliyah early in the 21st century.

An-doughnut is similar to Germany's Berliner , except it contains red azuki bean paste. Mister Donut is one of the most popular doughnut chains in Japan.

Native to Okinawa is a spheroid pastry similar to doughnuts called sata andagi. Kuih keria is a hole doughnut made from boiled sweet potato that is mashed.

The sweet potato mash is shaped into rings and fried. The hot doughnut is then rolled in granulated sugar. The result is a doughnut with a sugar-crusted skin.

Sel roti is a Nepali homemade, ring-shaped, rice doughnut prepared during Tihar , the widely celebrated Hindu festival in Nepal. A semiliquid dough is usually prepared by adding milk, water, sugar, butter, cardamom, and mashed banana to rice flour, which is often left to ferment for up to 24 hours.

A sel roti is traditionally fried in ghee. Doughnuts are available at most bakeries across Pakistan. The Navaz Sharif variety, available mainly in the city of Karachi , is covered in chocolate and filled with cream, similar to a Boston cream.

Doughnuts can readily be found at the many Dunkin' Donuts branches spread across Pakistan. Local varieties of doughnuts sold by peddlers and street vendors throughout the Philippines are usually made of plain well-kneaded dough, deep-fried in refined coconut oil and sprinkled with refined not powdered or confectioner's sugar.

Native doughnut recipes include the shakoy , kumukunsi , and binangkal. Shakoy or siyakoy from the Visayas islands also known as lubid-lubid in the northern Philippines uses a length of dough twisted into a distinctive rope-like shape before being fried.

The preparation is almost exactly the same as doughnuts, though there are variants made from glutinous rice flour.

The texture can range from soft and fluffy, to sticky and chewy, to hard and crunchy. They are sprinkled with white sugar, but can also be topped with sesame seeds or caramelized sugar.

It is made with rice flour , duck eggs, and sugar that is molded into rope-like strands and then fried in a loose spiral.

It has the taste and consistency of a creamy pancake. Often sold from food stalls in markets or by the side of the road, these doughnuts are small, sometimes X-shaped, and sold by the bag full.

In Austria , doughnut equivalents are called Krapfen. They are especially popular during Carneval season Fasching , and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid and usually filled with apricot jam traditional or vanilla cream Vanillekrapfen.

In Belgium , the smoutebollen in Dutch, or croustillons in French, are similar to the Dutch kind of oliebollen , but they usually do not contain any fruit, except for apple chunks sometimes.

They are typical carnival and fair snacks and are coated with powdered sugar. Doughnuts similar to the Berliner are prepared in the northern Balkans, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Macedonia and Serbia pokladnice or krofne.

They are also called krofna , krafna or krafne , a name derived from the Austrian Krapfen for this pastry.

In Croatia, they are especially popular during Carneval season and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid.

Traditionally, they are filled with jam apricot or plum. However, they can be filled with vanilla or chocolate cream.

The shape is similar to doughnuts in Germany or Poland. They are called Kobliha Koblihy in plural. They may be filed with nougat or with vanilla custard.

There are now many fillings; cut in half [ clarification needed ] or non-filled knots with sugar and cinnamon on top.

In Denmark , U. McDonald's and most gas stations. The Berliner , however, is also available in bakeries. It is sold cold and sometimes filled with jam like U.

A ring doughnut is also known as donitsi. A savory form of doughnut is the meat doughnut in Finnish lihapiirakka , or literally meat pie. Made from a doughnut mixture and deep fried, the end product is more akin to a savory doughnut than any pie known in the English-speaking world.

The French beignet , literally "bump", [67] is the French and New Orleans equivalent of a doughnut: In parts of Germany , the doughnut equivalents are called Berliner sg.

In middle Germany, doughnuts are called Kreppel or Pfannkuchen. A Berliner does not have the typical ring shape of a doughnut, but instead is solid and usually filled with jam, while a ring-shaped variant called Kameruner is common in Berlin and eastern Germany.

It is often served with sprinkled cinnamon and grated walnuts or sesame seeds. The most commonly used ingredients are flour , yeast , butter , egg yolk , rum , salt , milk and oil for frying.

The dough is allowed to rise for approximately 30 minutes, resulting in an extremely light pastry. It is supposed [ by whom? In Iceland kleinuhringur pl.

The Berliner and other types of doughnuts can only be found on one day of the year, a holiday called Bolludagur , i. Italian doughnuts include ciambelle , krapfen , zippuli and zeppole from Calabria , maritozzi and bomboloni from Tuscany , and frittelle from Veneto.

In Lithuania , a kind of doughnut called spurgos is widely known. In the Netherlands , oliebollen , referred to in cookbooks as "Dutch doughnuts", are a type of fritter, with or without raisins or currants , and usually sprinkled with powdered sugar.

Variations of the recipe contain slices of apple or other fruits. They are traditionally eaten as part of New Year celebrations.

In Norway, smultring is the prevailing type of doughnut traditionally sold in bakeries, shops, and stalls. The Berliner is more common than U.

In Poland and parts of the U. They are stuffed with chocolate, jam, cheese and other combinations and may be dusted with icing sugar.

In Russia and the other Post-Soviet countries , ponchiki Russian: Petersburg are a very popular sweet doughnut, with many fast and simple recipes available in Russian cookbooks for making them at home as a breakfast or coffee pastry.

In Slovenia , a jam-filled doughnut known as krofi , is very popular. It is the typical sweet during Carnival time, but is to be found in most bakeries during the whole year.

The most famous krofi come from the village of Trojane in central Slovenia, and are originally filled with apricot jam filling.

In Spain , there are two different types of doughnuts. The first one, simply called donuts , or more traditionally berlinesas , is a U.

The second type of doughnut is a traditional pastry called rosquilla , made of fermented dough and fried or baked in an oven.

Rosaquillas were purportedly introduced in Spain by the Romans. In some regions they are considered a special pastry prepared only for Easter. The churro is a sweet pastry of deep-fried dough similar to a doughnut but shaped as a long, thin, ribbed cylinder rather than a ring or sphere.

Churros are commonly served dusted in sugar as a snack or with a cup of hot chocolate. Similar to the Finnish munkki , the Swedish munk is a sweet doughnut commonly eaten as fika along with coffee.

It is sold cold and is sometimes filled with jam U. A ring doughnut is also known as simply munk. In Ukraine doughnuts are called pampushky Ukrainian: Pampusky are made of yeast dough containing wheat, rye or bukwheat flour.

Traditionally they are baked, but may also be fried.

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